A future without boot2docker, featuring Docker Machine
October 04, 2015
Docker has always had a few unofficial documented steps to getting things going on non-linunx environments. It usually went along the lines that if you weren’t on linux, get linux. This is understandable as docker is using LXC behind the scenes, and that requires linux. A lot of web developers are using Apple hardware with OSX, like myself, and probably felt like it was a little more setup than necessary. Projects like boot2docker made this way easier but that only solved setting up a docker host, or engine, for windows and Mac OS X. What about all those cloud providers? Pre-built images offered by Digital Ocean, etc…
Luckily Docker saw this challenge and abstracted a way to easily setup, from the client. a way to setup any docker engine. It’s called Docker Machine. They even provide migration steps for the boot2docker folk. Now we have an official resource that will work in tandem with docker’s future plans.
Getting things going on a Mac is easier than ever, and Docker provides a Toolbox installation that is easy to download and run as an installer. I prefer to avoid installers and as much as possible let homebrew handle my dependencies, and manage updates. Assuming you have homebrew already installed (and if you don’t go get it, your life will get easier).
Easy Installation with Homebrew
Prerequisite – Homebrew Cask installed? Cask lets you install installers via homebrew.
brew tap caskroom/cask
brew install caskroom/cask/brew-cask
With Homebrew Cask installed, in your terminal run:
brew cask install virtualbox
VirtualBox will run the virtual machine that runs linux, which will run Docker. Docker machine supports other means of virtualization, but I’ve only used VirtualBox as it’s free and been used for similar purposes by projects like Otto, Vagrant and boot2docker.
With VirtualBox ready, we just need Docker Machine, in your terminal run:
brew install docker-machine
Now you should have access to docker-machine on the command line, and we can go ahead and setup a virtual machine that docker can use. Let’s create a docker engine, in your terminal run:
docker-machine create --driver virtualbox dev
This will create a docker machine named dev. You can take a look at the docker machines at your disposal by putting docker-machine ls in your terminal.
Now we have a virtual machine, configured with docker, and running. If you restart your computer, or notice that after running docker-machine ls that the STATE isn’t Running , then all you need to do is run docker-machine start dev (in this case dev denotes the name of the engine).
The last step is to be able to actually execute commands against our Docker engine, and do things like create containers. As Docker Machine will let you run commands against any number of Docker engines, whether you have multiple virtual machines, cloud instances, your local docker command needs to be wired up so that its commands are directed at the correct engine. This is an important distinction so I’ll repeat that, your local docker client that you access by the docker is completely agnostic to the docker engine it is running commands against. The commands could be running against an engine locally, in the cloud, it just needs to be setup to point at the right engine. This makes it really powerful by having one API to manage containers across a slew of engines.
Docker-machine makes setting up the your docker client easy by:
eval "$(docker-machine env dev)"
(dev refers to the docker engine name that you can get from docker-machine ls). This command is setting up environment variables that your local docker uses, to see exactly what the eval is running behind the scenes put just docker-machine env dev in your terminal.
With all this setup, you should be able to type docker info and see all the information your local docker client has about what its current docker engine. At this point you’re free to use the docker command and have fun with containerizing your apps.
Hope this made the Mac OS X with Docker setup a little clearer and easier, and provided a homebrew way of setting things up. If anything didn’t make sense, or if I need to fix something please let me know! Thanks and Happy Dockering!